order vs randomness

logical sequences


Left to right:

‘Matrix’, 2020, ink on paper, 35x35cm framed, 30.5×30.5cm unframed:
A framework essential to the making of my work. It encapsulates many hours of sketchbook trials and holds the potential of new works to come. I draw it in pencil every time I produce a new geometric sequencing and erase it from the background once the work is completed. For the purpose of the show ‘The Value of Nothing’ it loses its ephemeral quality as I used white ink.

‘The Place of The Red Dots’, 2020, ink on paper, 35x35cm framed, 30.5×30.5cm unframed:
This work is part of my ongoing investigation and my interest in the role of rules and chance in the natural world.

‘Residue’, 2020, ink on paper, 35x35cm framed, 30.5×30.5cm unframed:
This is the remaining evidence of my process which I would usually discard after completing my work. This mark making enables me to achieve the standard I set myself to complete the work: It allows me to promptly clean the nib of my pen and get the ink flowing. It is the only loose gesture in this project. It is a trace of the process, a reminder of what happened, an evidence.

Chromatic Study


2D and 3D explorations of colour sequences and logic between primary and secondary.

In progress…

In this work I have reduced primary colours to basic geometric shapes following Kandinsky’s association: triangle=yellow, circle=blue and square= red. I then expanded this system to the first tertiary colours of the colour wheel.

These were executed for the Zeitgeist show: Reflecting on Zeitgeist, An idea would be to draw the geometric shapes associated with the colours of each European flag. These colours, which symbolise and encapsulate the beliefs and cultural identities of the countries they represent, would be reduced to an arrangement of basic geometric shapes. Since most flags display primary and secondary colours and since the latter are the result of combined primary colours, one can expect that this arrangement would present many repetitions and it would become visually difficult to identify which flag is which. Instead, the work might evoke more uniformity.

(s)HE – for Wavelengths 2018


This work was created for Wavelengths, a group show comprising nine contemporary female artists responding to Virginia Woolf’s novels.

In her novels, Woolf explores identity in relation to gender and reflects on how time and memory shape one’s character. She also weaves in the power of collective thinking, which promotes conformism and prejudice and notably exposes the expectations on women to perform gendered roles for men’s privilege. In Orlando, Woolf uses clothing to convey her views on gender fluidity, identity and patriarchal traditions over 4 centuries.

With (s)HE, I imagined Orlando having travelled a further century into the present and drew parallels between Woolf’s multiple symbolic associations about collective prejudices and with our contemporary society.

  • The dressmaker’s mannequin is associated with fashion.
  • The drawings are all associated with surgical diagrams with the purpose of facilitating gender reassignment or figure correction (enhancement or reduction), highlighting the ease with which one can transform their physical appearance in order to conform with an identity or an idea.
  • The flower head is a reference to Linder Sterling’s confrontational feminist photomontages referring to the male gaze and objectification of women.

Visualising Sound Waves

Visualising Sound Waves, 2018, acrylic on latex sheets 33 x 33 cm

Visualising Sound Waves considers sound as visual perception.

This work was created for Wavelengths, a group show comprising nine contemporary female artists responding to Virginia Woolf’s novel.

Woolf and sound:

  • In her Novel The Waves, Woolf is thought to be ‘writing to a rhythm and not to a plot’. She was listening to Beethoven as she wrote and drew from his work structurally.
  • Woolf also listened to the radio as her husband, Leonard, was a regular broadcaster.
  • The sounds of war, air-raid warnings, the buzz of low-flying planes, the noises of bombs exploding and glass tinkling, the rate of machine-guns and anti-aircraft fire were all a common occurrence. (Virginia Woolf: An Inner Life By Julia Briggs)


Latex sheets, sand, white spray paint, homemade amplifier


When a note is played, the taut latex vibrates and the sand hovers above it to form a shape that corresponds to the frequency created by the note.

Spray the paint. Once the paint has dried, the area with the sand is wiped off, leaving the negative of the shape.

Is Order a Question of Perspective

Looking for the equilateral triangle, acrylic and gel pens on 9 20x20cm MDF boards

Is there such a thing as randomness, or is what we perceive as a random event just the fragment of a pattern or a sequence too large in space and time for us to identify?

This investigation focuses on the seemingly unpredictable nature of events that we call chance. Are these random coordinates really independent from one another or is there a connection that could reveal a plan that is progressing the work towards a clear pattern?

Fragments of Happenings

In this series, I explore the outcome of placing diagrams on random coordinates. Whilst these coordinates are defined by random gestures, the diagrams are precise extrapolations of Kandinsky’s study in Point and Line to Plane on colour and shape association. Together and in conjunction with more random integrated factors (e.g. the throw of dice), these systems progress the work towards its completion, which is determined by the coordinates being used up.

Degree Show 2017

‘Now he has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. That signifies nothing. For those of us who believe in physics, the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.’ (Letter of 21 March 1955. Einstein Archives 7-245)

W3 = 0 + CH4NC3

Note about the theory of special relativity: “It embodies a whole new way of looking at the world, a whole attitude to reality and our relationship to it. Suddenly, the rigid unchanging cosmos is swept away and replaced with a personal world, related to what you observe.”

Bill Murray, particle physicist at the CERN laboratory in Geneva.

I became interested in the concept of spacetime, the fourth dimension that sweeps away the Euclidean reality which defines our world. It replaces it with a fluid framework where coordinates become relative to the observer and where the unidirectional path of time from past to future no longer applies:

There are no temporal distinctions between past, present and future in the fourth dimension, just a ‘now’ that is relative to what we are doing, our location, our speed and trajectory in space.

W3=0+Cn4Nc3 is a transcript of we=0+chance. It describes an interactive piece, where the participant chooses his or her starting point ‘0’ and engages in a performance contributing towards the building of a work with the use of chance.

It discusses the idea of a fluid framework where the coordinates are relative to the observer and considers the relationship between the direction of these lines in space and time.

How it works

The navigation board has 96 directions in space:

At any given time (from the clock on the wall) the roll of a die determines the direction D(x:y) of the participant’s trajectory, represented by the elastic band, as well as its length Lz in space. The 6-sided die gives the 1st coordinate of the direction. It locates the square the participant will position themselves on: 1 means the 1st square from original location (0), 6 is the 6th square from (0). That square will be where the 2nd coordinate is defined, which will in turn determine the precise direction of the participant’s trajectory.

1- To start with, choose your starting point on the grid and document it by writing ‘0’ next to your chosen nail on the grid. Enter your name, as well as the time (from the clock) and date of your participation in one of the squares around your chosen point of reference.

2- Throw the 6-sided die to move to your square

3- Choose your next die accordingly for the next coordinate:

  • Looking at the navigation board, the first and the second square have 8 possible different directions each. The participant will therefore use the 8-sided die if on these squares. The numbers from 1 to 8 will give the 2nd coordinate on the designated square, which will define the trajectory of the elastic band from the original location.
  • On the third, fourth and sixth square, there are 16 possible new directions. The participant will therefore use a 16-sided die. The numbers from 1 to 16 will give them the 2nd coordinate on their designated square, which in turn will define their trajectory.
  • On the fifth square, there are 32 possible new directions. The participant will therefore use the 32-sided die. The numbers from 1 to 32 will give them the 2nd coordinate on the designated square.

For example as see above, D(4:3) at 4h35: ‘4’ indicates that the participant drew 4 with the 6-sided die. They will start on the 4th square from their initial location 0 and will use the 16-sided die to find out their position on that square. The 16-sided die drew ‘3’. ‘3’ indicates the orientation of the trajectory, from the original location on the grid 0, to the top right corner of the fourth square.

5- Throw the 20-sided die to determine the length L of the move.

Note: If the number on the 20-sided die exceeds the number of coordinates available on the grid and the participant reaches the edge of the grid, he or she will need to reverse their course and finish counting the remaining points in the reverse direction of their track.

Strips of Time

The piece explores the idea of spacetime and its lack of distinction between past, present and future. It also raises the issue of relativity and demonstrates how perception is relative to the observer and their doing.

Strips of photographs are assembled in a continuum, over a wooden spool in a loop. Each photograph captures a slight change in an object (time-lapse). The changes can be observed all at once or individually and in no particular order as the viewer manipulates the strips back and forth.

From Chaos to Order

This piece challenges the idea of entropy: A praxinoscope allows the visualisation of more than one frame at a time with the possibility of going back and forth with the activation of the spin.

The images in this praxinoscope

Rien ne se perd, rien ne se cree, tout se transforme

Study of Space and Time 2016 – 2017

The Grid

Agnes Martin talks about her paintings of grids: ‘My paintings have neither objects nor space nor time nor anything – no forms. They are light, lightness, about merging, about formlessness, breaking down form.’ Agnes Marin, 1966.

Grid = repetition = duration = now = timelessness = formlessness = breaking down form = nothingness = lightness = ground = 0

However, the grid also allows for measurements and defines form: Labour + Matter + Time =  Form (3D) in Space (existence defined by coordinates on grid) The grid is a regular, calibrated system, a matrix that defines positioning, as well as measurements of objects and people. It holds potential.

Time Mapping

A repeated gesture that leaves a trace over time takes up space: Time passing (Duration) + energy (gesture/labour) + matter (trace) = drawing in space

Duration + labour + trace = form in space

First law of thermodynamic: ‘Rien ne se perd, rien ne se cree, tout se transforme.’

Ref: On Kawara (Today), Tehching Hsieh (Punching the Clock) and Roman Opalka’s Program

Which Coordinates?

Which Coordinates? depicts space and time intertwined in various layers.

This piece depicts the family movements over Christmas week. It is a response to Opalka’s life long work and Tehching Hsieh’s Time Clock piece. He said ‘Every time is different but also the same thing’ (2014): We follow routines, we stick to pathways, we repeat the same steps time and time again mostly over the same ground, like the hands on the face of a clock. We ‘spend’ the time, we mark it and we experience it.


The contour of each journey is traced using Morse code to describe the destination of the trip.

The visual representations of space and time are intertwined with an ambiguity between the numeric representation of dates and time integrated with the diagram of the journey in a topographic presentation.

Each person is represented by a dot.

Each photo frame equates to a Morse code letter. A total of 725 different frames were captured to resolve this piece, showing the progression of each journey and the gathering of people.

The steps evoked by the Morse code mark the passing of time at the selected rate of the animation, as would a metronome.

Spacetime Investigation 2015 – 16

This work samples a selection of my research between 2015 and 2016.

Working Spacetime out, 2016, Acrylic on canvas 80cm x 80cm

The many sources and infinite range of information that relates to the concept of spacetime are jammed in… This information overload exposes my struggle and confusion in assimilating the information and making sense of such an intangible and complicated concept.

Whilst the black canvas and white writing evoke the blackboard and chalk Einstein often worked with, they also allude to the visual representation of the concept of white lines on a black background.

This Analemma describes the sun’s positions in relation to Earth over the course of one year. It also evokes the ancestral way of reading time or charting spatial position. Sundials, clocks and compass were subsequently invented to measure time and location more conveniently and finally the GMT was established to synchronise our world.